The European “Flower of Ecology” label was produced in 1992, and the competent authority is the EU Ecolabelling Committee, which is the most famous ecolabel in the European market. “Ecological Flower” is widely recognized in Europe as a voluntary certification program. It assesses the environmental impact of a product throughout its design, production, sales, use, and end-of-life processes. Products that are labeled “Eco Flower” are more competitive in the market.

On June 6, 2011, the EU Ecolabelling Committee issued a new “Flower of Ecology” labeling regulation for light bulbs (2011/331/EU). This regulation applies to all sources of light with a luminous flux of ≥ 60 lumens and ≤ 12 000 lumens for general illumination, with the exception of the following:
  • Directional light
  • HID light
  • Coloured lamps
  • Projection lamp
  • Photographic lighting
  • Sunbathing tube
  • Battery-powered lamp
  • Other lights not for general lighting

The new regulations determine the “ecological flower” standard for light bulbs in terms of light performance, longevity, mercury content, and hazardous substance content. Some of the requirements are as follows:

Single-ended Double ended
efficiency 10% better than the lumen per watt value according to Class A 10% better than the lumen per watt value according to Class A
Life (hours) 15 000 20 000
Lumen maintenance 80 % at 9 000 hours 80 % at 9 000
Mercury content (mg) < 1,5 < 3,0
Switching cycle Greater than the life of the lamp (in hours)
Color rendering index Greater than 85
Color tolerance 3

In addition, the regulations also specify the requirements for hazardous substances, plastic parts, packaging, user manuals, etc. Companies that apply for eco-labels must also comply with social responsibility regulations.

TÜV SÜD, a well-known testing and certification organization, offers a wide range of testing and certification services for different markets in the world. For the EU market, TÜV SÜD can provide companies with a complete solution for ERP directives and help companies apply for the “Eco Flower” label and the UK “ESTR” label. For the US market, TÜV SÜD is an Energy Star certification body accredited by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide ENERGY STAR certification services for LED lighting products. In addition, TÜV SÜD can provide testing and certification services for California Energy Efficiency Regulations (CEC).

TÃœV SÃœD has introduced world-class optical testing equipment such as Labsphere and Bentham in the United Kingdom. It is equipped with an integrating sphere system, a distributed photometer system, an optical radiation safety system and various other auxiliary equipment. Product manufacturers provide one-stop optical performance testing services, including light and color parameters such as luminous flux, efficacy, light distribution, chromaticity coordinates, color temperature, color rendering index, color space distribution, etc., and according to IEC 62471 Photobiological safety testing.

The first Programmable Logic Controllers were designed and developed by Modicon as a relay re-placer for GM and Landis 

These controllers eliminated the need for rewiring and adding additional hardware for each new configuration of logic. 
The new system drastically increased the functionality of the controls while reducing the cabinet space that housed the logic. 
The first PLC, model 084, was invented by Dick Morley in 1969.The first commercial successful PLC, the 184, was introduced in 1973 which was designed by Michael Greenberg.

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